NCERT Class 10 Science Lab Manual Materials. Download NCERT Chapters and Books in pdf format. Easy to print and read. Copies of these textbooks may be. Basic concepts of each experiment has been covered for better understanding. The matter is presented in simple and lucid language under main-headings and . This Manual of Secondary Science Kit for Classes IX and X not as a portable laboratory whereas the manual supplements the science M.P; Mr. R.P. Sharma , Education Officer Science, CBSE, Siksha 10 per cent composition by volume.
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NCERT CLASS 10 SCIENCE LAB MANUAL PDF PEELDZSURG | PDF | 63 Pages | KB NCERT CLASS 10 SCIENCE LAB MANUAL. CBSE CLASS 10 SCIENCE LAB MANUAL DOWNLOAD PDF The main topic of the following eBook is focused on CBSE CLASS 10 SCIENCE. Class 10 Science Lab Manual Features: Experiments for Class 10 CBSE; Chemistry Practicals for Class 10; Physics Practicals for Class 10;
It is advised to tilt the burner in order to collect the magnesium oxide product. Which reaction that takes place when magnesium burns in air? Why is it called a combination reaction?
Why does the red litmus paper turn blue when touched with aqueous solution of magnesium oxide? Name 5 more such species? Is there a possibility of a compound other than MgO formed in the above reaction? Is there any similarity between compounds LiH. Burn the magnesium ribbon keeping it away from your eyes as far as possible and use dark coloured goggles to see dazzling light emitted during burning of magnesium. Collect magnesium oxide powder carefully so that it does not touch your skin.
Why is it suggested to wear dark coloured goggles while watching the burning of magnesium ribbon in air? Take few zinc granules in a test tube. Add about 10 mL of dil.
Effervescence Reaction of zinc granules with dil. Litmus test Bring moist blue and red litmus papers near to the mouth of the test tube 4. Test Activity 1. Colour Look at the colour of the gas liberated 2. Smell Fan the gas gently towards your nose with your hand 3. Materials comes out from the reaction mixture. Glass tube Test tube Fig.
Perform the tests as given in the observation table and record your observations. Is it acidic or basic or neutral? Does it burn in air or ignites exothermically to produce water? Care should be taken while pouring the dil. Take 3 mL of sodium sulphate solution in a test tube and label it as A. In another test tube. How does the combustion of hydrogen gas produce water? How will you show that the hydrogen gas is neutral in behaviour? What are the others metals among the species Mg.
It is advised that this test may first be demonstrated in the laboratory. Which of the above metal s would not evolve hydrogen gas from dilute hydrochloric acid? Ag metals which react with dil. As a result. Experiment 1. Does it suggests that the substances which produce ions in water result into precipitation reaction under favourable condition?
Materials 3. Observe the changes in colours of the solutions as per the steps given in observation table below. Does anything precipitates in the test tube? If so. Mix the two solutions with gentle shaking. T ransfer the solution from test tube A to the test tube B. Mix the two solutions and leave the mixture Observations undisturbed for some time.
Observe the colour of the two solutions in test tubes A and B before mixing them. Vapours are formed that come out from the stem of the funnel. Place an inverted clean and dry funnel over the china dish containing the sample. This is an example of decomposition reaction. What are the industrial applications of the type of the reaction being studied?
Why do the persons suffering from the ailment of stone formation advised not to take too much milk and tomato juice? Predict you may try to experimentally verify. THEORY Ammonium chloride on heating in an open container is decomposedinto hydrogen chloride and produces ammonia gas.
Check whether any liquid is produced in the china dish? Take about 5 g of ammonium chloride in a clean and dry china dish. Heat the china dish containing the sample of ammonium chloride Fig. Place the china dish on a wire gauge and keep it on a tripod stand. Observe the change in its colour. Observe the change in the colour of the filter paper. Materials 6. Bring a wet blue litmus paper near the tip of the funnel. Now conclude that ammonium chloride when heated in open system.
Dissolve 45 g potassium hydroxide in water and dilute to 80 mL solution C. Dissolve 10 g of potassium iodide in 10 mL water solution A. It is thus sublimation reaction. Limestone decomposes thermally into quick lime. What is the industrial importance of this chemical reaction? On thermal decomposition. Add solution B to solution A dropwise. This gas mixture does not show neutral behaviour in litmus test.
Add solution C to it. In this reaction. Dissolve 6 g mercury II chloride in mL water solution B. These gases then recombine to form ammonium chloride NH4Cl. How will you distinguish between hydrogen chloride and ammonia gases in a laboratory?
Can you think of decomposing water into its elemental components H2 and O2. This reaction can be performed by tightly plugging the top of the stem of the funnel by cotton. Allow it to stand overnight and decant the clear solution. The chemical reactions in which energy is absorbed are called endothermic reactions and those in which energy is released are known as exothermic reactions.
Materials 3 AIM To measure the change in temperature during chemical reactions and to conclude whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. The reaction can be identified as exothermic or endothermic by measuring the change in temperature of the reaction mixture. In this experiment the following chemical reactions can be carried out: In some reactions. Successively insert a thermometer in each beaker for some time and record their temperatures. Take 20 mL of sodium hydroxide solution in beaker no.
Stir well the reaction mixture gently using the glass rod. Note and record the final temperature readings of the thermometer. Reactants of the reaction 2. Quickly insert the thermometer in the reaction mixture. Note and record the final temperature reading of the thermometer. Ba OH 2. Quickly insert the thermometer in this reaction mixture.
Note and record the initial temperature. Wash the thermometer and glass rod after noting the readings. Mark all the four clean beakers as 1. Stir well the reaction mixture gently using a glass rod.
To see the reaction of sodium hydroxide solution with hydrochloric acid. Also record the room temperature. Note and record its initial temperature reading. Wash the thermometer and glass rod with water before inserting it in another reactant or reaction mixture.
Which according to you is exothermic change? What precautions did you take while measuring the temperature of a reaction mixture?
Consider the changes. Take a clean zinc granule in a clean and dry test tube. Fix a delivery tube through a cork to the mouth of the test tube and pass the liberated gas through the freshly prepared lime water Fig. Note and record the observation. Effervescence will start coming from the reaction mixture. Materials 2. Successively bring wet blue and red litmus papers to the mouth of the test tube.
Passing of liberated gas through the freshly prepared lime water Inference Lime water test iii Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide 1. Experiment Observations Inference Litmus test: Action on red litmus Action on blue litmus ii Reaction with Sodium Carbonate 1. Take about 5 mL dil. Experiment Observations Fig. Observe what happens? Do you see bubbles of it in lime water?
Does it turn milky? If yes. Take about 1 g of sodium carbonate in a clean and dry test tube. Add about 2 mL of dil. Effervescence will come out from the reaction mixture. Put about 5 mL of dil. Do you find it warm or cold?
What does that mean? Does it turn blue now? Ascertain the neutrality of this mixture by successive dipping red and blue litmus papers. NaOH contained in test tube B.
Dip a blue litmus paper in test tube A containing dil. Dip blue litmus paper in test tube A Dip red litmus paper in test tube B After adding n drops of dil. HCl from test tube A in dil. Keep on adding the dil. Shake the mixture slowly but continously and observe the change by dipping litmus paper in the test tube B.. Which litmus paper will you use for this purpose?
Add dil. HCl from test tube A dropwise to dil. What do you see? Do you find the the blue litmus paper turns red. Laboratory Manual Science 3. Touch the test tube and feel the temperature. It is suggested to always use freshly prepared limewater. Shake the solutions and reaction mixtures carefully without spilling. Explain how?
How can the deposits of carbonates and hydrogencarbonates on the metal surface be cleaned? Handle hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions very carefully. Allow it to stand for about 24 hours. Decant the supernatant liquid and use it for the tests.
What will happen to a lighted candle if it is brought near the mouth of a gas jar containing hydrogen gas? Which gas is produced when zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid? Which gas is liberated when sodium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid?
Care must be taken while performing the combustion test. Shake 5 g calcium hydroxide Ca OH 2. It also neutalises the hydrochloric acid to produce sodium chloride salt and water.
It reacts with aluminium metal to produce hydrogen gas. Take a small piece of aluminium metal and place it in a clean and dry test tube. Perform combustion test by bringing a lighted candle near to the mouth of the test tube.
Observe the effervescence coming out from the reaction mixture. Look at the colour of the gas liberated. Combustion Bring a lighted candle near to the test mouth of the test tube Observations Inference ii Reaction with hydrochloric acid The experiment should be carried out as done in Experiment 4.
Perform the smell test on the gas liberated by fanning the gas gently towards your nose. Does the liberated gas ignites exothermically to produce water? Test Experiment 1. Bring moist blue and red litmus papers to the mouth of the test tube.
Add about 5 mL sodium hydroxide solution in it. Explain why hydrogen gas is not collected by the downward displacement of air? Which gas is produced when aluminium metal reacts with sodium hydroxide? Hydrogen gas is neutral to litmus paper. What are the metals other than Al which react with alkalies to produce hydrogen gas?
What are these metals called? Electrolytes may be acid. Using a sand paper. The current in electrolytes is carried by the ions and not by the electrons as in metals.
Materials 6 AIM To show that acids. In this experiment we shall observe it by means of continuity test in an electric circuit that contains either an acid or a base or a salt solution as a part of it. Continuity test thr ough an electrolyte 6. Check whether the torch bulb glows. Thus it is an electrolyte. The two nails will work as two electrodes. Laboratory Manual Science 2.
Do not dip the rubber cork in which two iron nails are fixed and connected in the circuit in any beaker. Label them as beakers A. Draw a circuit diagram for performing a continuity test in an clectric circuit that contains either an acid or a base or a salt solution as a part of it see Fig.
Insert the key into the plug. Also connect these two nails. Take nearly mL distilled water in each of the four beakers mL. Does it mean that the electric circuit is yet not complete or the dry rubber cork does not conduct electricity?
Remove the key from the plug. Does the bulb glow now? Set up the electric circuit by connecting different components with the help of connecting wires. It does not. Record your observation. Add about five drops of hydrochloric acid in distilled water in beaker A to get an acidic solution. Insert the key in the plug and allow the current to flow in the circuit containing dil. Take a dry rubber cork and fix two iron nails in it at a distance.
Nail Test solution Rubber cork Fig. Observe how different components like the dry cells or battery or battery eliminator. It means that the electric circuit is now complete and that the hydrochloric acid conducts electricity. Do not add anything in the distilled water in beaker D. For observing the continuity test through the dil.
The nails must be partially dipped inside the liquid while performing electric continuity test. The rubber cork must be washed and dried after every test and before dipping it in another liquid solution. Beaker D: Materials 9. Experiment Observations Inference Electric continuity test through 1. Wash the rubber cork and make it dry using a clean cloth. The acidic concentration in the distilled water must be highly dilute otherwise the nails will start reacting with the acid. Beaker A: Repeat the experiment for the continuity test through the dil.
Beaker C: Beaker B: Remove the key and take out the rubber cork from the beaker A. Discuss the following dissociation reactions: What are the current carriers in electrolytes?
In place of a torch bulb. Experiment Nos. Please also connect a resistor of about 1 or 2 W resistance in series with the galvanometer or ammeter. Please make sure that if a 6 V source is used in the circuit. It is advised that students may be suggested to perform any of these experiments before performing this experiment.
In place of hydrochloric acid solution. Why do they not conduct electricity?
How does the hydrochloric acid solution proves to be a better conductor of electricity than acetic acid solution CH3COOH? Which substance is used as an electrolyte in lead storage battery and which one in dry cells. This experiment can also be performed with 3 V source preferably with a 3 V torch bulb. The pH scale varies from 0 to NH 4Cl etc. It shows different colour at different pH [Fig. It is a scale for measuring hydrogen ion concertration in a solution.
A value less than 7 on the pH scale represents an acidic solution. Generally a paper impregnated with the universal indicator is used for finding the approximate pH value. Where as pH value more than 7 represents basic solution. Digestive juice in stomach Lemon juice 2. Place five clean test tubes in a Glass r od test tube stand.
Glass rod used for Fig. Saliva 7. Salt solution NaCl 4. Note the pH by comparing the colour appeared on the pH paper with those on colour chart for pH paper [Fig. Take the solutions of a dilute acid say HCl. Drop of juice 2. For determining the pH of a fruit juice. Put one or two drops of each test solution on different strips of pH papers. Explain your answer either way. What according to you should be the pH of dil.
Teachers may take a solid chemical like oxalic acid and juices of citrus fruits. NaOH solutions? Observe and explain your findings. Glass rod used for one sample should be used for the other sample only after washing it with water. Students may be suggested to compare the pH values of juices of unripe and ripe fruits and note the change in pH during ripening.
On opening the soda water bottle the dissolved CO2 comes out. HCl and dil. On treatment with small quantity of dilute acid. The nascent oxygen produced by the decomposition of hypochlorous acid HClO is the cause for bleaching action. Glass rod used for one sample solution should be used for the other sample solution only after washing it with water.
The chemical which decolourises. Label them as E. Take about 20 mL of dilute sulphuric acid in each of remaining four beakers. Prepare about 50 mL. A B C D Colour of the cloth or flower petal dipped in the solution of sample chemical Colour of cloth or flower petal dipped in sample solution and then in dil. Thus the bleaching powder can be identified. Dip a small piece of coloured cloth or flower petal in beaker A. Take out the cloth or flower petal from the beaker A and dip it in dil.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 with other three samples of given chemicals and dil. Label these beakers as A. Does the cotton cloth or flower petal decolourise?
In this case. Sample 1. These must not touch your skin. Why does the bleaching powder known as a mixture? What happens when bleaching powder is exposed to air? How does the bleaching powder help in the purification of water? What is the chemical name of bleaching powder? Carbonates and hydrogencarbonates react with dilute acids and produce carbon dioxide gas which turns lime water milky. It is soluble in water and forms a colourless solution.
Their aqueous solutions are alkaline and turn red litmus blue. Materials 9 AIM To identify washing soda or baking soda among given samples of chemicals.
Does it again become colourless? This reconfirms that the liberated gas is CO2. Pass the liberated gas evolved through the lime water in a test tube. Note the change in colour of the litmus paper. Add about 5 mL distilled water in each boiling tube. Wash the glass rod used for one sample before using it for other sample. Continue passing the liberated gas through the lime water.
Take about 1 g each of the four given samples separately in four boiling tubes and label them as A. Repeat the lime water test on all samples that give effervescence in step 4. For performing lime water test. Add 1 mL of dil.
Gently shake the contents of the tubes. Do not forget to wash the boiling tube when you change the sample in it for performing the lime water test.
Does the lime water turns milky? Do you see any effervescence from any test tube? If the addition of dil. Handle hydrochloric acid and washing soda carefully. Colour Solubility in water Action on red litmus paper Action of dil. Discuss about the litmus paper and lime water tests performed. These salts liberate either CO2 or SO2. Sample No. Preparation of lime water: Shake 5 g calcium oxide CaO.
Sulphur dioxide also turn lime water milky. These should not touch your skin. The remaining samples of salts should not be carbonates. What will happen if crystalline washing soda is left open in air? CO2 and SO2 both turn lime water milky and their aqueous solutions turn blue litmus paper red. How can you then distinguish between these? Why should carbon dioxide be soluble in aqueous solution of potassium carbonate?
Materials 10 AIM To show that crystals of copper sulphate contain water of crystallisation. Take some crystals of copper sulphate CuSO4. These crystals dehydrate on heating to lose water of crystallisation at a particular temperature and also change their colour.
Do you see any difference in them? Look at the dehydration reaction of copper sulphate. Thus the hydration and dehydration is the precise cause of colour change. Keep the watch glass in open atmosphere for some time and allow it to cool.
Do not bring your face near to hot spatula. What shall be the total action of heat on copper sulphate? It is regarded that each molecule of copper suphate crystals at room temperature contains five water molecules as water of crystallisation. Note the change in colour of the copper sulphate crystals during the heating. Heat these crystals on a burner by keeping the spatula directly over the flame of the burner.
Do you find a change in the colour of copper sulphate crystals. Stop heating when it becomes complete white. This dehydrated copper sulphate regains water of crystallisation on cooling and it again becomes blue. Does it show a bluish white colour? Transfer the content white powder to a watch glass. The blue colour of copper sulphate solution will gradually fade and finally. A more reactive metal displaces a less reactive metal from its salt solution. For example. The metals. Displacement reactions can be used to find out the relative reactivities of metals.
Some metals are more reactive than others. Materials 11 AIM To study the interaction of metals such as magnesium. Laboratory Manual Science four beakers mL. Metal Metal displacement and colour change of solution Solution to which metal is added Zinc sulphate solution. C Lead nitrate solution. Take zinc.
Fig Take 10 mL of each solution in four different test tubes and label them as tubes A. Note that these are the salt solutions of the four metals taken for studying the interaction.
Label these beakers as W. Put zinc metal strip in all the nitrate D solutions four test tubes. Repeat the above experiment with other metal strips by dipping them in fresh salt solutions of metals and observe for displacement reactions. B Iron II sulphate solution.
Zinc metal dipped in Zinc sulphate A. Wash the test tubes after every set of observations of interaction of a particular metal with the four salt solutions. BX is a salt of metal B. Give reason. What is your observation when copper is added in iron II sulphate solution?
Which is the most and the least reactive metal in the above experiment? H2SO 4 may be added during the preparation of salt solutions to avoid the hydrolysis of sulphate salts.
A and B are metals. For obtaining granuels of different metals. Name any two metals that are more reactive than iron? Why did the colour of copper II sulphate solution. Metals like aluminium. The reaction is so violent that the liberated hydrogen immediately ignites.
But all metals donot react with water. Metals like lead. Metals like potassium and sodium react violently with cold water. It reacts with hot water to form magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen. Take seven test tubes each half filled with cold water. Boil about mL Fig. How fast these tube metals react with cold water? Do all metals Gas jar react at the same rate?
The order of reactivity Metal Clamp in different test tubes can be compared by Burner carefully observing the rate of formation of bubbles of liberated hydrogen gas in the Trough test tubes. Put these metallic pieces in test tubes half filled with hot water.
Did you find any metallic substance reacting neither with cold water nor hot water? These may or may not react with steam. Also observe that which metal reacts fast with hot water? Also compare their order of reactivity by observing the bubbles of liberated hydrogen gas in the test tubes.
Put small samples of clean metallic substances in these seven test tubes. Materials In this experiment we shall study reactions of some metals with water under different conditions. Take out the metallic pieces from the test tubes that did not react with cold water in steps 2 and 3. Action of steam on a metal water in a beaker. Place them in a test tube stand. Observe the test tubes to identify the metals Stand that react with cold Glass wool H2 gas Deleivery Boiling tube water.
Take such samples out from the test tubes. Observe the test tubes to identify the metals that react with hot water. Iron 6.
All metals except sodium should be cleaned by rubbing with a sand paper. Zinc Lead 5. Arrange the metals in the decreasing order of reactivity with water under different conditions. Also list the metals that do not react with water.
Laboratory Manual Science 9. Metals Reaction conditions cold water 1. Aluminium 7. To see the reaction of metallic substances as identified in step 8 with steam. Sodium Magnesium 3. The exposed surface area of all samples of metallic substances under observations should be same.
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