Intermediate Steps To starucarulrap.gq - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Introductory Steps to Understanding book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. This work contains stories to help students' reading a. Advanced Steps to Understanding. This new L. A. Hill series, Steps to Understanding, is a development from the highly successful approach used in Stories for.
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This work contains stories to help students reading and listening comprehension. Hill L.A. Introductory Steps to Understanding. Файлы. Языки и языкознание. Steps to Understanding is a four-level book of about fun and educational short stories to help students' reading and listening comprehension. The stories. Oxford Read and Discover 6 - Clothes then and starucarulrap.gq Intermediate Steps to starucarulrap.gq МБ. Advanced Steps to Understanding + starucarulrap.gq
The Question step again only takes 3—5 minutes to complete, but it will motivate the reader to seek answers to the questions.
Read R1 Use the background work done with "S" and "Q" in order to begin reading actively. This means reading in order to answer the questions raised under "Q". Passive reading, in contrast, results in merely reading without engaging with the study material. Recite R2 The second "R" refers to the part known as "Recite. This recital step may be done either in an oral or written format and is related to the benefits of retrieval testing effect in boosting long-term memory for the material.
When prior knowledge contains misconceptions, there is a need to reconstruct a whole relevant framework of concepts, not simply to correct the misconception or faulty idea.
Effective instruction entails detecting those misconceptions and addressing them, sometimes by challenging them directly Caravita and Hallden, ; Novak, The central role played by prior knowledge in the ability to gain new knowledge and understanding has important implications for the preparation of students in the years preceding advanced study.
To be successful in advanced study in science or mathematics, students must have acquired a sufficient knowledge base that includes concepts, factual content, and relevant procedures on which to build. This in turn implies that they must have had the opportunity to learn these things. Many students, however, particularly those who attend urban and rural schools, those who are members of certain ethnic or racial groups African American, Hispanic, and Native American , and those who are poor, are significantly less likely to have equitable access to early opportunities for building this prerequisite knowledge base Doran, Dugan, and Weffer, ; see also Chapter 2 , this volume.
Inequitable access to adequate preparation can take several forms, including 1 lack of appropriate courses Ekstrom, Goertz, and Rock, ; 2 lack of qualified teachers and high-quality instruction Gamoran, ; Oakes, ; 3 placement in low-level classes where the curriculum focuses on less rigorous topics and low-level skills Burgess, , ; Nystrand and Gamoran, ; Oakes, ; 4 lack of access to resources, such as high-quality science and mathematics facilities, equipment, and textbooks Oakes, Gamoran, and Page, ; and 5 lack of guidance and encouragement to prepare for advanced study Lee and Ekstrom, Students who lack opportunities to gain important knowledge and skills in the early grades may never get to participate in advanced classes where higher-order skills are typically taught Burnett, Principle 3: Metacognition Learning is facilitated through the use of metacognitive strategies that identify, monitor, and regulate cognitive processes.
To be effective problem solvers and learners, students need to determine what they already know and what else they need to know in any given situation. They must consider both factual knowledge—about the task, their goals, and their abilities—and strategic knowledge about how and when to use a specific procedure to solve the problem at hand Ferrari and Sternberg, In other words, to be effective problem solvers, students must be metacognitive.
Empirical studies show that students who are metacognitively aware perform better than those who are not Garner and Alexander, ; Schoenfeld, For example, research demonstrates that students with better-developed metacognitive strategies will abandon an unproductive problem-solving strategy very quickly and substitute a more productive one, whereas students with less effective metacognitive skills will continue to use the same strategy long after it has failed to produce results Gobert and Clement, The basic metacognitive strategies include 1 connecting new information to former knowledge; 2 selecting thinking strategies deliberately; and 3 planning, monitoring, and evaluating thinking processes Dirkes, Experts have highly developed metacognitive skills related to their specific area of expertise.
If students in a subject area are to develop problem-solving strategies consistent with the ways in which experts in the discipline approach problems, one important goal of advanced study should be to help students become more metacognitive. Having students construct concept maps 2 for a topic of study can also provide powerful metacognitive insights, especially when students work in teams of three or more see Box for a discussion of concept maps.
Principle 4: Differences Among Learners Learners have different strategies, approaches, patterns of abilities, and learning styles that are a function of the interaction between their heredity and their prior experiences.
Individuals are born with potential that develops through their interaction with their environment to produce their current capabilities and talents. Thus among learners of the same age, there are important differences in cognitive abilities, such as linguistic and spatial aptitudes or the ability to work with symbolic quantities representing properties of the natural world, as well as in emotional, cultural, and motivational characteristics.
Additionally, by the time students reach high school, they have acquired their own preferences regarding how they like to learn and at what pace. Thus, some students will respond favorably to one kind of instruction, whereas others will benefit more from a different approach.
Annex illustrates some of the ways in which curriculum and instruction might be modified to meet the learning needs of high-ability learners. Appreciation of differences among learners also has implications for the design of appropriate assessments and evaluations of student learning. Students with different learning styles need a range of opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge and skills. For example, some students work well 2 Concept maps are two-dimensional, hierarchical representations of concepts and relationships between concepts that model the structure of knowledge possessed by a learner or expert.
The constructivist epistemology underlying concept maps recognizes that all knowledge consists of concepts, defined as perceived regularities in events or objects or their representation, designated by a label, and propositions that are two or more concepts linked semantically to form a statement about some event or object.
Free software that aids in the construction of concept maps is available at www. Figure was made at the beginning of the study of meiosis and shows that the student did not know how to organize and relate many of the relevant concepts.
The student equated meiosis with sexual reproduction and was not clear on how meiosis relates to homologous chromosomes. These maps are presented without editing. Novak Jan. Used with permission. The student now has integrated the meanings of meiosis and sexual reproduction, homologous chromosomes, and other concepts. While some concept meanings still appear a bit fuzzy, the student has clearly made progress in the development of understanding, and his knowledge structure can serve as a good foundation for further study.
Some excel at recalling information, while others are more adept at performance-based tasks. Some express themselves well in writing, while others do not. Humans are motivated to learn and to develop competence Stipek, ; White, She told him. His grandmother told him a lot about it.
He talked a lot with his grandmother while he was there. Dick alreadyknew a lot about his family. D tr n n n u Answer these questions: Whom did Dick visit when he was six? Whom did he talk to about thesethings when he came home? Where had Dick been born?
Where had his father been born? And where had his mother been born? What did his father say when he askeda lot of questions? And what did Dick answer? C M]dtt When Dick was six years old. Dick's grandmother told him things. When he came home again to his own parents.
When Dave was a very small boy. What did the youne doctor in thc hospitalsay to Da'u'e? You will find all the correct words in the story on page He dicl not do anvthine about this fbr a long time. What did his doctor do? And what did l av'eanswer? Hc was not able to breathc as well as befbre. Shc took hinl to the doctor. He Joe was one of those people who love the sound of their own never had anything interesting to say.
He stoppedother peoplesayinganything. Peopledid not enjoy listeningto him. They had a good meal. One evening he was invited to a party by someone whom he had met only a few days before and who did not know him very well yet. He was invited to a party by an old friend.. Joe liked talking very much. I must go. He talked and talkcd and talkcd. Joe danccd once with a prett ' sirl and then suegested that they should sit and talk.
Joewanted ro talk insteadof dancing. What kind of'personwasJoe? What happenedonc cvcrlins? What didJoe and thc prettv girl do? What didJoe do then? What was lle sayirtgwhen thc girl stoppcdhim? What did she do? And what did sl're: He was always a eood boy. Then at last Matthew left school. Hc did not obey the schoolrules. How did Matthew behaveat school?
What did his headmastcrdo about it? Did he succeed? What made things cvcn worsc? Matthew had come to his school whe n he was ereven.
The headmastcrwrote a cleveranswer. He tricd to get a job with a big company. His headmaster tried to make him work and behave better. Yifm'n Matthew Hobbs was sixteen years old.
Matthew got a job with a big company. He had been at the same school for five years. His old headrr. He waslazy. Harry could not. These people arc rhe rop peoplein schools. Harry was a schoolboy. Harry came to his mother one morning while she was having her breakfast. When did he say this? What did his mother answer?
And what did Harry sa. What was his mother'sanswer? A headmasteris. Some teachers are men. You're quite well. He liked going to school. His mother thoueht he should change. If-you want to shootstraight. Harrv was the headmasterof the. His mother wanted him to go to schooltoo. Aeroplanesland ar. What did vou think Harrv rvas when lou starteclreading storv? The teachers don't. These people drir He was the headmaster.
She thought he might be too ill to go ro schoolthat dar 6. Harrr'' said to his mother. Even the cleanersand the bus drivers hate me. And besidesthat. L Harrv had scveral. H e r h u s b a n d told her that Mrs Potts had just left him and gone to the lavatory.
NIrs lVatson went to the shops. Mrs i. She had a nice neighbour.
During this time. She looked in her husband's waiting-room. Mrs Potts lived near Mrs Watson.
One day. S h ec a m e t n Mrs Watson was a doctor's wife. I to wait l. Dr Watson's nursc helpedher walk.
Mrs Potts had to go to Dr Watson becauseshe was ill. I hurrying. Dr Watson had cut N. Mrs Watson ran out into the crowded waiting-roomjust in time to 'Here's your kidney! NlrsWatsonwas ill. Choose the correct words. I lauehing. What work did Mrs Watson'shusbanddo?
Who was Mrs Potts? How did sheand Mrs Watson help eachother? Why did Mrs Watson oller to do Mrs Potts'sshopping one day? What did Mrs Pottsask her to get? Write the sentences for each picture. Outsidethe I headwords. She shouted. They often did each other's shopping. I don't mind 6. A Which of these sentences are true T and which are false F?
IrsPotts'skidncv out. When he went back toJim. One day they were looking for rich families ro rob. Why didJim becomea thieP How did he steal things?
Why was he good at it? What did he sendone of his men to do one evenins? What did the man see? What did he saytoJim? Find words in the story on page 52 which mean about the opposite of: Two people were playing on the same piano there.
They tried to find rich families. Jim was clever. One of his men played a duet on a piano with a girl. The girl's family was poor. I want easy work that gives me lots of'money and that the government doesn't know about. They were much less intelligent than he was. He always used cleverpeopleto stealfor him.
He said. Fred went up to its owner and said. Fred could not seeanyoneplaying againsthim. He saw a dog sitting in the chair oppositethe man. The bar was almost empty. Where did Fred sometimesgo after work? Why did he seldomfind anyoneto talk to there?
What did he seeone evening? Why was he very surprisedwhen he went nearer? How did the dog manageto play? Who won?
What did Fred say then? What did the dog's owner answer?
Put the right sentences under the right pictures: Fred sometimes liked to go to a bar to have a drink before he went home after work. Fred alwayshad his drink at home. Fred was very surprised. There were some tables and chairs in the bar.
He went nearer to look. Fred went into his usual bar.
He went nearer. A man was playing draughtsat a table. He sat down at a table. When it had to move one of its draughts. I always win. When the dog wanted to move a draught. The dog moved the draughts itself.
Then one evening he went into the bar and saw a man playing draughts at a table. The dog sometimeswon the game. He talked to a lot of peoplein a bar. Fred watched while the two played their game. OutsidetheI headwords: Dr Brown is a kind man. One day he was not feeling well. I'm going to give you somemedicinefor him. He thought lbr a minute and then 'Yes.
He lefi England to work in a foreign country when he was Just continue with the medicine I eave you last time. The first visit to the doctor cost less than later visits. Then he nodded and said. Henry wanted to know how much it cost to go to him. Henry was from the United States and he had come to London for a holiday.
Why did Henry haveto asksomeoneelsefor the nameof a doctor? What did the clerk do? What did Henry ask him then? And what did the clerk answer? What did Henry decide? What did he say to the doctor? And what was the doctor'sanswer?
Henry wanted the clerk at the hotel to send a good doctor to his room. He must. Is he expensive? He was very ill. Answer l. And when they need. Henry tried to make the doctor believe that he had been to him bt-lorc. The clerk gave him the name and address of a doctor. Someof his. One day a. Will he be all right? We don't want him to die. Can you sive me the name of a good one?
The doctor knew that he had not seen Henrv before. Dr Brow'n. The restaurantqavepeoplccat's mcat insteadof rabbit's. Who did shehave working fbr her? Vhat did the sailor do? Why was MrsJenkins surprised? What did shedo then? What did she ask the waitress? And what did the waitressanswer?
What had the sailor thousht? It made a terrible noise. T'he cat made a noisebecauseits tail hurt. L MrsJenkins's restaurantwas very big. One day a sailor came into the restaurant. MrsJenkins was surprisedwhen the sailor left. Thesailorarrivedf il: Southampton is a big port. What was Mrs. Why was one prisont'r vt: The guard did not like beins disturbed ar this rime. I won't let you in. If they do not promise this. How did the guarcl fbel about this?
One night one of the prisoners was invited to have a meal and a 5. Belore they are allowed to go out like this. Peter's mother looked in the telephone book ancl saicl. During the C'lhristmasholidays. Is that thc IIrs Poe who has a daughter who takes painting lessons? Peter'smother spoketo Nfrs Poepolitely. How did the lvornanfbel.
She telephoned the first one. How old was Peter?